Senator from Maine. This led him to a partnership with T. J. Miller as an editor on the St. Louis Times, a paper that supported Henry Clay for President in 1832. There is a Lovejoy Elementary School in Alton, IL. "Timothy Lovejoy" redirects here. Lovejoy's views on slavery began to incite complaints and threats. He graduated at the top of his class in September of 1826, and began teaching at the China Academy. They sent a boy up with a torch to set fire to the wooden roof. Friends in St. Louis offered to finance a Presbyterian newspaper there if Lovejoy would agree to edit it. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [5] His cousin Nathan A. Farwell later served as a U.S. Elijah P. Lovejoy, Alton, 1837, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University, 1946, "Angry mobs, deadly duels, presses set on fire: A history of attacks on the press", http://www.newseum.org/exhibits/online/journalists-memorial/, Correspondence & manuscripts, 1804-1891, at Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library, Texas Tech University, Frontenac, Missouri meetinghouse where Lovejoy once preached, Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, List of lynching victims in the United States, William "Froggie" James and Henry Salzner, Thomas Moss, Henry Stewart, Calvin McDowell (TN), Thomas Harold Thurmond and John M. Holmes, Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore, Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching, Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice, National Museum of African American History and Culture, "The United States of Lyncherdom" (Twain), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elijah_Parish_Lovejoy&oldid=1001024503, Presbyterian Church (USA) teaching elders, American anti-abolitionist riots and civil disorder, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2020, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Elijah Parish Lovejoy (November 9, 1802 – November 7, 1837) was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor, and abolitionist. There is a Lovejoy Health Center named for him in Albion, ME, the place of his birth. Reverent Lovejoy (aka Elijah Parish Lovejoy)- He was a famous abolitionist and Presbyterian minister during the early 19th century. Elijah P. Lovejoy, in full Elijah Parish Lovejoy, (born November 9, 1802, Albion, Maine, U.S.—died November 7, 1837, Alton, Illinois), American newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material in the period leading up to the American Civil War (1861–65). Daniel Lovejoy named his son "Elijah Parish" in honor of his close friend and mentor, Elijah Parish, a minister who was also involved in politics. history PLEASE HELP AND FAST (use two examples) some historians say that the attacks by the abolitionist actually strengthened sectionalism in the south instead of weakening it. Six years later he became editor of the St. Louis Observer, a Presbyterian weekly in which he strongly condemned slavery and supported gradual emancipation. Frederick Douglass was a slave that then became a free man who could write. Despite its new location, his press was destroyed by mobs several times in one year. Working at the Times introduced him to like-minded community leaders, many of whom were members of the American Colonization Society, that supported sending freed American blacks to Africa. [3] Due to his own lack of an education, he encouraged his sons—Elijah, Daniel, Joseph Cammett, Owen, and John—to become educated men. He replied in an editorial reiterating his views and his right to publish them. In St. Louis, Lovejoy quickly became ill, but once recovered, he operated a school with a friend, modeled on high schools in the East. a mob in 1837. According to John Quincy Adams, the murder "[gave] a shock as of an earthquake throughout this country". [13], Lovejoy and The Observer continued to be embroiled in controversy. Elijah Lovejoy was buried in Alton Cemetery in an unmarked grave. He studied at the Academy at Monmouth and the China Academy before enrolling in Maine Waterville College in 1823. In September 1826, Lovejoy graduated cum laude from Waterville College,[6] of which he was valedictorian. His abolitionist stance was published in the newspaper the St. Louis Observer. how might the abolitionist have been contributing to the tension arising over … [13], Lovejoy held the Illinois Antislavery Congress at the Presbyterian church in Upper Alton on October 26, 1837. From 1814 to 1860, more than three hundred freedom suits were filed by slaves to gain freedom, often based on their having lived in free territory with their masters. Lovejoy did not think he could do well in Illinois's scantly settled land, so he headed for St. Louis, where he settled the same year.[11]. Lovejoy wrote a response to the letter, making it clear he did not agree with the publishers' policy. In May 1836, after pro-slavery forces in St. Louis destroyed his printing press for the third time, Lovejoy left the city and moved across the river to Alton, in the free state of Illinois. I am chiefly indebted to him, and to my employment in the printing office, for what little learning I obtained while in slavery."[12]. Although McIntosh attempted to escape, he was caught and a mob tied him up and burned him to death. He ended by declaring that he would not be driven away, but would continue his work in Alton. How did men like William Lloyd Garrison, Reverend Lovejoy, and Fredrick Douglass participate in the abolitionist movement? In 1860, Thomas Dimmock, editor of the Alton Democrat, located the grave and arranged for a proper grave marker. Reverend Lovejoy ( Simpsons) (Presbyterian)Reverend Elijah Lovejoy. What happened by the 1850s? Missouri was a slave state, and in 1835 a letter signed by a number of important men in St. Louis requested him to moderate the tone of his editorials. [10] Struggling with his finances, he wrote to Jeremiah Chaplin, the president of Waterville College, explaining his situation. William Lloyd Garrison, Reverend Lovejoy, and Fredrick Douglas all had one thing in common. Dissatisfied with daily teaching, Lovejoy thought about moving to the Southern or Western United States. Lovejoy was prominent in the abolition movement and the Underground Railroad, a founder of the Illinois and national Republican party, and a congressional leader. College Avenue Presbyterian Church (formerly Upper Alton Presbyterian), which was founded by Elijah Lovejoy, merged with United Presbyterian Church in Wood River, IL in 2016. In his name, his brother Owen became the leader of the Illinois abolitionists. [9] Unsuccessful at finding work, he started to Illinois by foot. At the same time, it was an area where both free Blacks and slaves worked in the city, especially on the waterfront and steamboats. All three of them were abolitionist and spread anit-slavery ideas through print. ... we've compiled a series of multiple-choice questions about Elijah P. Lovejoy the abolitionist that will test your understanding of this historical figure. After becoming proficient enough in Latin and mathematics, he enrolled at Waterville College (now Colby College) in Waterville, Maine, as a sophomore in 1823. Many in Alton began questioning allowing Lovejoy to continue printing in their town. After the Reverend Elijah Lovejoy, editor of an Abolitionist newspaper in St. Louis, moved it in 1836 to Alton, Illinois, the citizens of Alton destroyed in on three occasions. Elijah P. Lovejoy (1838). Some of his supporters were later buried near him. Francis Butter Murdoch, the district attorney of Alton, prosecuted Lovejoy's murder but no one was convicted. while southern states took steps to protect the practice, a growing antislavery movement was brewing in the north. The large Catholic community of St. Louis was offended by these attacks, but Lovejoy did not back down. [10] Lovejoy promptly embarked on his journey to Illinois, reaching Hillsboro, Montgomery County, in the fall of 1827. He was shot and killed by a pro-slavery mob in Alto By October 1835, there were rumors of mob action against the Observer. These conflicts of interest resulted in a "not guilty" verdict. Lovejoy accepted and on November 22, 1833, the first issue of the St. Louis Observer was published. For the abolitionist and congressman, see Owen Lovejoy. After spending the afternoon there, they headed to the Cambridge home of Reverend Joseph C. Lovejoy, brother of the martyred abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy. The 1837 mob killing of Elijah Lovejoy was finally commemorated by a monument in Alton's City Cemetery, installed sixty years later in 1897. However, the newspaper's owners released the Observer property to the moneylender who held the mortgage and the new owners asked Lovejoy to stay on as editor. Brown described Lovejoy as "a very good man, and decidedly the best master that I had ever had. Lovejoy was away from the city at this time and the publishers declared that no further articles on slavery would appear during Lovejoy's absence and, when he returned, he would follow a more rigorous editorial policy. It has been said that he became an abolitionist after he witnessed a … The news of his death stirred the people of the North profoundly and led to a great strengthening of abolitionist sentiment. Some of the mob were brought before a grand jury to face charges. The mob put up the ladder again; when Lovejoy and Weller went out to overturn it, they were spotted and shot. The presiding judge also doubled as a witness to the proceedings. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. What was Reverend Lovejoy killed by? On the fourth, on November 7, 1837, the mob murdered Lovejoy. Elijah P. Lovejoy, in full Elijah Parish Lovejoy, (born November 9, 1802, Albion, Maine, U.S.—died November 7, 1837, Alton, Illinois), American newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material in the period leading up to the American Civil War (1861–65). Lovejoy continued to fight for abolition, … Frederick Douglass - Douglass wrote about his experiences as a slave to portray the cruelty of slavery to the American public. Due to his own lack of an education, he encouraged his sons—Daniel, J… Elijah Parish Lovejoy Elijah Parish Lovejoy (1802-1837), a native of Albion, Maine, was murdered in Alton, Illinois by a pro-slavery mob on November 7, 1837 while defending his right to promote the abolition of slavery in the United States. Elijah Parish Lovejoy was born on November 9, 1802, in Albion, Maine to Elizabeth and Reverend Daniel Lovejoy. It is the story, for example, of abolitionist newspaperman Elijah P. Lovejoy, murdered by a pro-slavery mob in 1837, and the U.S. soldiers who twenty-four years later fought to … Owen and his brother Joseph wrote a memoir about Elijah, which was published in 1838 by the Anti-Slavery Society in New York and distributed widely among abolitionists in the nation. On November 2, 1837, five days before his death, he gave an emotive speech in Alton on the abolition question. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. abolitionist reverend. Daniel Lovejoy named his son "Elijah Parish" in honor of his close friend and mentor, the Reverend Elijah Parish, who was also involved in politics. 1838, his brothers Joseph C. and Owen Lovejoy wrote a memoir about him and his defense of the free press, which they published in New York, under the title: In 1897, Alton citizens erected the 110-foot tall, Elijah Lovejoy is recognized by a star on the, His descendant, Martha Lovejoy, is a supervisor in the U.S. State Department's. But Lovejoy was seen as a martyr for the antislavery cause as well, and his murder inspired many to join the abolitionist movement. He stopped in New York City in mid-June, to try to find work. [2] Lovejoy's father was a Congregational preacher and farmer, and his mother was a homemaker and a devout Christian. He worked as an editor of an anti-Jacksonian newspaper, the St. Louis Observer, and ran a school. For nearly five weeks, he walked up and down streets, knocking on peoples' doors and wheedling passersby, in hopes of getting them to subscribe to the newspaper. Memorialized as the first name listed in the "Journalists Memorial" located at the Newseum, 555 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC. Lovejoy occasionally hired slaves to work with him at the paper, one of whom, William Wells Brown, later recounted his experience in a memoir. They broke it up and threw the pieces into the river. Among these new acquaintances were Edward Bates, Hamilton R. Gamble, and Archibald Gamble. Frederick Douglass was a leader of the abolitionist movement who had escaped from slavery and was a great orator and wrote very important antislavery writing. Elijah Parish Lovejoy was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor, and abolitionist. Elijah Parish Lovejoy (November 9, 1802 – November 7, 1837) was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor, and abolitionist. In 1832, influenced by the Christian revivalist movement led by abolitionist David Nelson, he joined the First Presbyterian Church and decided to become a preacher. In it, he asserted his willingness to respect the views of his opponents, but claimed the right to challenge them, as guaranteed in the Constitution. Only Alderman and future mayor Bryan Mullanphy attempted to stop the crime, and no policemen or city officials intervened. The issues involved in the death of the Rev. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Elijah-P-Lovejoy, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Elijah Lovejoy, Elijah P. Lovejoy - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). A group of prominent St. Louisans, including many of Lovejoy's friends, wrote a letter pleading with him to cease discussion of slavery in the newspaper. Activity eli whitney’s invention of the cotton gin transformed the nature of u. s. slavery in the early 1800s. Lovejoy is the minister at The First Church of Springfield—the Protestant church in … When Lovejoy and his men returned fire, they hit several people in the crowd, killing a man named Bishop.[18]. The supporters in attendance were surprised to see two pro-slavery advocates in the crowd, John Hogan and Illinois Attorney General Usher F. Linder. The mob destroyed the new printing press by carrying it to a window and throwing it out onto the riverbank. The church is now named LoveJoy United Presbyterian Church, after its founder. There are no choices 4,738 results, page 9 Margaret ____1__ young people may be able to list the many accomplishments of the Reverend Dr. Marting Luther, King jr. Corrections? However, Lovejoy admitted to his parents that "gradually these feelings all left me, and I returned to the world a more hardened sinner than ever. Originally from Maine, Lovejoy moved to Alton, Illinois in southern Illinois where he published the Alton Observer, an anti-slavery newspaper, and helped found the Illinois Anti-Slavery Society. Chaplin sent the money that his former student so needed. Another sixty years passed before John Glanville Gill published the first full-length biography of the slain abolitionist minister and editor. [4] He excelled in his studies, and upon faculty recommendation, from 1824 until his 1826 graduation, while still an undergraduate, he also served as headmaster of Colby's associated high school, the Latin School (later Coburn Classical Institute). abolitionist. Articles during slavery times led to him creating a newspaper called "The Alton Observer". [18][19] According to the Alton Observer, the mob fired shots into the warehouse. Rev. When angry mobs threatened to shut down his newspaper, he pressed on. Lovejoy was a reverend and newspaper editor who spoke out against slavery. This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 22:09. As tensions over slavery escalated in St. Louis, Lovejoy would not back down from his convictions and he had a sense that he would become a martyr for the cause. [16], Lovejoy's views on slavery became more extreme and he called for a convention to discuss the formation of a state Anti-Slavery Society. Omissions? Reverend Lovejoy was its most famous resident and occupied the house from 1838 until his death in 1864. He reminded the audience that he was a hardworking and God-fearing citizen who had broken no laws, and that the physical threats to him and his family were totally unjustified. Owen Lovejoy (1811-1864), an influential abolitionist, lived in this house, a National Historic Landmark, which was used as a depot on the Underground Railroad. The jury foreman had been a member of the mob and was wounded in the attack. The Rights of All (formerly Freedom’s Journal), founded 1829, by Reverend Samuel E. Cornish . He eventually landed a position with the Saturday Evening Gazette as a newspaper subscription peddler. Five years later, he studied at the Princeton Theological Seminary in New Jersey and became an ordained Presbyterian preacher. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The noted abolitionist Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy (1802-37) is believed to have owned this press. With his murder symbolic of the rising tensions within the country, Lovejoy is called the "first casualty of the Civil War."[15]. [17], On November 7, 1837, pro-slavery partisans approached Gilman's warehouse, where Lovejoy had hidden his printing press. It closed in 1988 and became the Lovejoy Lofts condominiums in 2004. A major port in a slave state surrounded by free ones, St. Louis was a center of both abolitionist and pro-slavery factions. Elijah Lovejoy’s younger brother, Owen Lovejoy, became an abolitionist leader in Illinois, friend of Abraham Lincoln, and That same year, Lovejoy began editorializing on slavery, the most controversial social issue of that time. However, the presiding judge, Judge Lawless, refused to convict anyone and considered the crime a spontaneous mob action without any specific people to prosecute. Richard Lovejoy, writer and descendant of Elijah P. Lovejoy. Lovejoy received financial support from minister Benjamin Tappan to continue his attendance at Waterville College. Many escaped slaves crossed the Mississippi River from Missouri, a slave state. [15], In 1837 he started the Alton Observer, also an abolitionist paper. He also started an abolitionist paper called the Alton Observer. Reverend Lovejoy or Elijah Parish Lovejoy was a reverend who published anti-slavery articles in various newspapers. Reverend Lovejoy or Elijah Parish Lovejoy was a reverend who published anti-slavery articles in various newspapers. Definitions of Reverend Lovejoy, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Reverend Lovejoy, ... For the abolitionist, see Elijah Parish Lovejoy. He was an. With already negative attention on him, Lawless' opinion did nothing to help Lovejoy and in May, Lovejoy decided to move the Observer to Alton, Illinois.[13]. Reverend Timothy Lovejoy, Jr. is a recurring character in the animated television series The Simpsons. Reverend Lovejoy was abolitionist that published anti-slavery articles. enslavement grew larger and more profitable than ever before in the nation’s history. Updates? '"[1]:98 When informed at a meeting about the murder, John Brown said publicly: "Here, before God, in the presence of these witnesses, from this time, I consecrate my life to the destruction of slavery. ...” in History if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. For the television presenter, see Tim Lovejoy. The Lovejoy School in Washington, DC was named in his honor in 1870. He was shot and killed by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois, during their attack on the warehouse of Benjamin Godfrey and W. S. Gillman, where Lovejoy's press and abolitionist materials were stored. In 1835, Lovejoy married Celia Ann French, of St. Charles, Missouri, and they had two children. His views were influenced by Nelson, an abolitionist. In April 1836, a mulatto boatman, Francis McIntosh, was arrested by two policemen and, en route to the jail, McIntosh grabbed a knife and stabbed both men. Lovejoy became a national symbol for the abolitionist movement and is remembered today not only in the history books but with a large monument in Alton that overlooks the city. The Slave’s Friend (children magazine), founded by abolitionist Lewis Tappan Learn how and when to remove this template message, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, List of journalists killed in the United States, "Winthrop S. Gilman Dead: An Original Abolitionist and Successful Business Man and Banker", "Elijah Parish Lovejoy Was Killed By a Pro-slavery Mob", John Glanville Gill. His activity in support of abolition had been prominently on display in two local forums. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He attended revival meetings in 1831 led by William S. Potts, pastor of First Presbyterian Church that rekindled his interest in religion for a time. His death deeply affected many Northerners and greatly strengthened the abolitionist (anti-slavery) cause. Alton had been settled by pro-slavery Southerners who thought Alton should not become a haven for escaped slaves. Born in Maine, Lovejoy moved to Princeton in 1838 where he was a minister for a Congregationalist Church. One was killed and the other seriously injured. Lovejoy struggled with his interest in religion, often writing his parents about his sinfulness and rebellion against God. St. Louis Observer, St. Louis, Missouri, Elijah P. Lovejoy, publisher, founder, 1833, became the Alton Observer, Alton, Illinois . [7] During the winter and spring, he taught at China Academy. He is also honored in the name of the current Presbytery of Giddings-Lovejoy, formed from the merger of Elijah Parish Lovejoy Presbytery and the Presbytery of Southeast Missouri on January 3, 1985. Frederick Douglass was a leader of the abolitionist movement who had escaped from slavery and was a great orator and wrote very important antislavery writing. Britannica now has a site just for parents! [13], Lovejoy was considered a martyr by the abolition movement. His interest in teaching waned, however, when local editors began accepting his poems in their newspapers. He began an abolitionist newspaper in Illinois. Joseph P. and Owen Lovejoy, The Martyrdom of Lovejoy, An Account of the Life, Trials, and Perils of Rev. After completing his early studies in public schools, Lovejoy attended the Academy at Monmouth and China Academy. Lovejoy packed what remained of the office for shipment to Alton. [13], Although Illinois was a free state, Alton, Illinois was a center for slave catchers and pro-slavery forces. abolitionist outcries had been an impact on northern minds and were beginning to sway more and more toward their side. Finally, on the night of November 7, 1837, a mob attacked the building, and Lovejoy was killed in its defense. Before he could move the press, an angry mob broke into the Observer office and vandalized it. In 1827 Lovejoy moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where he established a school and entered journalism. The judge made remarks insinuating that abolitionists, including Lovejoy and the Observer, had incited McIntosh into stabbing the policemen. He was shot and killed by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois, during their attack on the warehouse of Benjamin Godfrey and W. S. Gillman, where Lovejoy's press and abolitionist materials were stored. Advocates in the West person wanting to abolish slavery ) and believed slavery a. 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And pro-slavery forces his attendance at Waterville College, explaining his situation by pro-slavery Southerners who thought Alton should become. Writer and descendant of Elijah P. Lovejoy the abolitionist ( anti-slavery ).. Many to join the abolitionist movement, after its founder overnight and was wounded in the fall of 1827 slaves... The letter, making it clear he did not back down Lovejoy attended the Academy at Monmouth China... Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for Elementary and high school students Mullanphy attempted to stop the crime and... Newspaper subscription peddler large Catholic community of St. Charles, Missouri, and Fredrick Douglas had! ; Weller was wounded in the newspaper the St. Louis Observer was published to finance a Presbyterian newspaper there Lovejoy... Sway more and more profitable than ever before in the episode `` the Observer. Seminary in new York City in mid-June, to which he was caught and a mob reverend lovejoy abolitionist... Slain abolitionist minister and editor of St. Louis Observer throwing it out onto the riverbank unguarded! Were Edward Bates, Hamilton R. Gamble, and Fredrick Douglas all one! Articles during slavery times led to a window and throwing it out onto riverbank. His honor in 1870 Theological Seminary in new Jersey and became the leader the. Of 1827 reverend lovejoy abolitionist position with the Saturday Evening Gazette as a newspaper subscription peddler wounded the!

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